Which Bible Version Is Best?
Frequently Asked Questions
- Which Bible version should I buy?
- Has God protected the King James Version from errors?
- Is the King James Version the only Bible I should read?
- Is the King James Version more accurate than modern translations?
- Why are some verses left out of modern Bible translations?
- Why are Bible publishers allowed to copyright God’s Word?
- Have modern Bibles changed God’s Word?
The first English language version of the full Bible was John Wycliffe’s translation of the Vulgate in 1384. Several other English versions followed, including the Great Bible (1535) and Bishop’s Bible (1568).
The King James Version
King James I of England commissioned a new translation in 1604. The work was done by 47 Bible scholars of the Church of England and completed in 1611. It was officially known as the Authorized Version (AV), but it was also known informally as the King James Bible or King James Version (KJV).
The KJV is considered a masterpiece of English literature, both scholarly and stylistically. Quotations from the KJV are found throughout English literature and music. The archaic language and unfamiliar syntax of the KJV sound majestic and give an impression of authority and originality.
The KJV, itself, has been updated several times: in 1629, 1638, 1762, and 1769.
Is the KJV the Best Version?
Some people believe the KJV is the most accurate or only authentic version of the Bible.
the Hebrew and Greek manuscripts the KJV translators used were faithfully preserved by God or are the most accurate for some other reason.
the translators of all later versions were biased or incompetent in one way or another.
Still others say
the KJV is a literal and accurate translation while later versions were rewritten to suit the biases of the publishers.
Despite some sentiment favoring the KJV, the great majority of Bible scholars and Christians reject all these objections as being based on faulty facts and reasoning,
and they do not consider the KJV to be more accurate or more sacred than other translations.
The team of 47 scholars who translated the KJV did an excellent job.
However, the English language has changed a lot in the more than 400 years since it was published. The vocabulary is outdated. Pronouns and verb tenses have changed since then.
Many KJV words and phrases, such as Lord of hosts, sabaoth, emerods and concupiscence, would not be meaningful to most people today.
Worse, many other KJV words, such as charity, trespass, profit, cousin, and remission, have different primary meanings today than they did in 1611, and could mislead the reader. As a result, many people find the KJV quite difficult to read and understand.
Well, commenting on two last paragraphs, I do not consider myself among those people. I prefer to retain and preserve such words and expression instead of hiding and them. I bought a small New Testament in English when my high school class visited London and St Paul’ in 1978 – was 19 years old. T’was King James’s. Very quickly, I came to appreciate this ancient English, as I already did with the old Swedish version from 1917.
Modern Bible Versions
Twentieth century developments in archaeology, scientific dating methods and Biblical scholarship have yielded new knowledge about the Bible.
Modern Bibles are translated from a set of ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts that is believed to be older and closer to the originals than those that were used as the basis for the KJV.
Advantages of Modern Translations
Although the newer translations are believed to be more accurate than the KJV, the differences are minor.
No significant changes of belief or interpretation would result from the many minor corrections.
The main advantage of the modern translations is that they are written in modern English so the reader will not be mystified or misled by the archaic English of the KJV.
The mainstream modern Bible versions have been translated by teams of highly qualified Bible scholars who have diligently done their very best to convey the true meaning of the ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts to the modern reader.
These modern translations have been adopted by many churches, both Protestant and Catholic, for use in worship.
It is often pointed out that modern translations omit a few of the verses found in the KJV, and this is sometimes believed to be an attempt to distort the Bible’s teachings.
However, the real reason is that certain verses are not found in the oldest and best Bible manuscripts.
Thus, they are omitted to accurately preserve the original Bible text.
(The chapter and verse numbers were added to the Bible in the Middle Ages; they were not part of the original Bible manuscripts.
Thus, an omitted verse does not mean that something was omitted from the original writings.)
Some of these extra verses were added to certain manuscript copies as margin notes or as prayers for use in public worship.
Those manuscripts were then copied and recopied without making it clear that the extra verses were later additions.
The most famous example is the doxology,
”For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.” that the KJV adds to the Lord’s Prayer in Matthew 6:13.
That phrase is not found in any of the oldest manuscripts of Matthew.
Another objection to some modern versions, such as the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) and the 2011 New International Version(NIV),
is the use of ”gender-neutral” or ”gender-inclusive” language.
a man —- a person
he/him—-he or she, him or her
Thus, Romans 3:28 has traditionally been translated into English as ”… a man is justified by faith …”
However, the original Greek word anthropos means ”human being” and applies equally to both sexes.
So, the NRSV and NIV have translated this verse as ”… a person is justified by faith …” to convey the inclusive nature of the original Greek word.
The KJV translates John 13:20 as, ”Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.”
The NRSV changes the ”he” to ”whoever” to show that the original text applied equally to men and women,
but the ”him” that applies to God is left as masculine: ”
Very truly, I tell you, whoever receives one whom I send receives me; and whoever receives me receives him who sent me.”
Publishers of gender-neutral Bibles are quick to point out that these are not ”politically correct” or ”feminist” Bibles.
They have used gender-neutral language only where it would have been understood that way in the original Hebrew and Greek languages.
Most of the modern Bible versions are protected by copyright law. Some people question whether it is right to copyright God’s Word. However, the experts who do the work have bills to pay and families to support like everyone else. Their salaries are paid from sales of their work. Without copyright protection, unscrupulous publishers could copy and sell a Bible version without paying any of the proceeds to the men and women who did the work.
The complete Bible has been translated into over 500 languages, and portions exist in almost 3000 languages and dialects.
Here is a list of some excellent modern translations, in alphabetical order:
The New American Bible (NAB) is the official Catholic version of the Bible in the United States, and it is written in very modern English. The books of the Apocrypha are incorporated into the Old Testament of Catholic Bibles. Otherwise, this translation does not differ significantly from modern Protestant Bibles.
The New American Standard Bible (NASB), published in 1971, is a scholarly update of the 1901 American Standard Version. Sponsored by the Lockman Foundation, the translators used the best available Greek and Hebrew texts as a guide.
The New International Version of the Bible (NIV), a completely new translation of ancient Greek and Hebrew texts sponsored by the New York International Bible Society, was published in 1978 and revised in 2011. Its clear, direct modern English makes it easy to read and understand. The 2011 edition incorporated gender-neutral language.
The New Revised Standard Version Bible (NRSV), published by The National Council of Churches in 1989, is an update of the highly regarded Revised Standard Version of 1952. The language is very modern, but the style is more traditional than the NIV. The NRSV uses gender-neutral language in places where it would have been understood that way in the original language. The NRSV is also available in Catholic editions and Anglicized Editions.
The Revised English Bible (REB) is a British edition published by Oxford University Press in 1989. The translators have written in a style suitable for use in worship, while maintaining intelligibility for people of a wide range of ages and backgrounds.
In addition to the translations above, there are a number of paraphrased Bible versions which were translated ”thought-by-thought” instead of more literally. The translators have written in a style that is thoroughly modern and these Bibles are suitable for all ages and very easy to understand. By nature, though, these paraphrased versions involve some interpretation that is subject to debate:
The Living Bible (TLB), published in 1971, is a popular paraphrased version written by Kenneth N. Taylor, who began this version to help his own children understand the New Testament Letters of Paul.
The New Living Translation (NLT), published in 1996, is a thought-by-thought translation by 90 Bible scholars from various theological backgrounds and denominations. It is similar to The Living Bible, but the language is more traditional.
There are also several Bible editions that include helpful study notes:
The Catholic Study Bible Second Edition contains the complete NAB Bible plus a Reading Guide for each book, study notes and short essays to help with understanding.
Life Application Study Bible is available in NIV, NLT and NASB editions. It contains the complete Bible plus extensive study notes emphasizing application to everyday life.
NLT Study Bible contains the complete NLT Bible plus extensive study notes to help with understanding.
The Old Testament
The events of the OT (excluding Genesis 1-11) occurred roughly between 1800 B.C. and 400 B.C. A Greek translation of the OT, called the Septuagint, was produced between 200 and 100 B.C. for the benefit of Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Apocrypha, a group of fifteen late OT books, was written during the period 170 B.C. to 70 A.D. These Jewish books were included in many versions of the Septuagint in circulation as the New Testament was being formed, but they were excluded from the official canon of Judaism, established about 100 A.D. Today, the books of the Apocrypha are included in Catholic versions of the OT, but not in most Protestant versions. These books are also known as the deuterocanonical books.
The New Testament
The people of first century Palestine, including Jesus, spoke the Aramaic language. However, early Christian writings were written entirely in Greek, the universal language of the Roman Empire at that time. The books of the New Testament (NT) were written during the period 50 A.D. to 100 A.D. The early church leaders gradually assembled these writings into what is now known as the New Testament. They included books they believed were written by eyewitnesses to the events narrated, while rejecting many other early Christian writings. Eventually, the 27 books which form the present New Testament, along with the OT books, became the Christian Bible as we know it today. The New Testament canon was formally adopted by the Synod of Carthage in 397 A.D.
During the early centuries A.D., Latin replaced Greek as the language of the Roman Empire. In 405, a Latin translation of the Old and New Testaments was completed. This version, known as the Vulgate, became the standard Bible of Christianity for many centuries.
None of the original writings of the OT or NT still exist. They have long since been lost to decay, fires, wars and other causes. However, they were copied and recopied many times over. Bible copies were made entirely by hand until printing was invented in 15th century. As a result, there are many small variations among the many ancient Bible manuscripts still in existence.
Many additional ancient Bible manuscripts and fragments have been discovered since the late 1800’s. The scientific methods of paleography and radiocarbon dating can now determine approximately when the thousands of different manuscripts were written. This new knowledge has enabled newer translations based on the oldest and best ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts.
Source : Common Sense Atheism
Which Bible Translation is Best?
There is a bewildering array of English Bible versions available. Which one should you read?
We want one that is accurate, based on the best manuscripts and the latest scholarly research.
But we also want one that is readable. A too-literal translation like Young’s Literal Translation actually obscures the meaning of the text for laymen.
For the beginner, the best option is to use several Bibles.
If you have more time, read supplemental materials like Metzger’s A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament.
And of course the best solution is to become fluent in the languages of the Bible: ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic.
But assuming you only have the patience to consult a few English translations, which should you choose?
The New English Translation is a superb translation: accurate, readable, and based on the best manuscripts and scholarly work available. Its best feature is its extensive footnotes, which discuss the reasons for each significant translation decision. (For example, the footnotes on 1 John 5:7-8 comprise over 900 words.)
It also does an admirable job of not interpreting the Jewish Bible (the “Old Testament”) in light of Christian polemics (the “New Testament”).1
It can be read online, and future printings will include the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books.
Christian Bibles are produced by Christians who interpret the Jewish Bible in light of the New Testament,
not in light of its Jewish authors and context.
How We Got the Bible is the first non-translation I must recommend to anyone who wants to read the Bible for all it is worth. It is a popular introduction to who wrote the books of the Bible, how they were preserved (or not), and how they were translated.
If you have the money, you’ll also want software like BibleWorks or PC Study Bible, which allow you to compare dozens of Bible versions, examine manuscript variants, and read additional materials like commentaries and research works.
In summary, I think the most basic Bible study collection should include:
- The New English Translation (with footnotes)
- The Holman Christian Standard Version (with footnotes)
- The Jewish Study Bible
- The Pre-Nicene New Testament by Robert Price
The Bible is the most aggressively altered, well-researched, and historically significant book in all of human history. It is a pleasure to study. Enjoy yourself!
- See Michael Marlowe’s review of the NET Bible. Marlowe sees this theological independence as a problem rather than a virtue, because he is committed to conservative Christian doctrine which hijacks the Jewish Bible for Christian purposes. [↩]
- Also see Lost Scriptures, which contains a few books that The Pre-Nicene New Testament does not, but lacks many others. [↩]
See more at : Commonsenseatheism.com